"From impoverishment towards better and civilized living"

By: Joseph G M Ssemwogerere
The Katikkiro of Buganda
P O Box 7451
Kampala, Uganda

Bulange, Mmengo
May, 1996

Table of Contents

Forwarding Note by the Katikkiro of Buganda
Background to the programme: Preamble
Way Forward for the Emancipation of The Buganda Kingdom
Strategies for Achieving the CDR Objectives
Programme Development and Management, Social Recovery and Development
Education, Sports and Information, Health and Nutruition
Natural Resources and Agriculture
Finance, Industrial Development and Commerce
Community Development, Women and Youths
Culture, Heritage and Tourism
Public Works and Buildings, Politics and Human Rights: Projects
Service Projects Under BUCADEF
Capital Generation Projects Under BICUL
Organisation and Structure of The Buganda Kingdom Adminstration


The over 30 years of Uganda's Independence have been characterised by civil wars and dictatorial rule which has severely disrupted the country's cultural, social and political institutions thus, throwing the population into unprecedented impoverishment. Now, vigorous attempts are being made to re-discover our past and the Buganda Kingdom is spearheading a Cultural and Development Revolution within the state of Uganda.

For, even after a century since the Europeans explored the Dark Continent, Africa remains the least developed continent with its people living in abominable conditions, without democratic institutions that can tackle its numerous political and social scourges. The abandonment by Africa of its traditions and political cultures, on the advent of the European civilisation, and the adoption wholesale of foreign practices vulnerable to corruption and authoritarian rule, has made the continent lag behind, despite its enormous Natural and Human resources. Yet, the old political order of coercion and manipulation, that disregards the Human Rights and SelfDetermination of the people, is still dominant on the Continent.

However, the massive support the restored monarchies in Uganda enjoys now, after a 30 year period of abolition, is a solid testimony that the future of the African people lies in evolving democracy through such indigenous institutions. The use of this channel to support the African people should, therefore, be developed and strengthened. His Majesty the Kabaka of Buganda has launched a Cultural and Development Revolution (1995-2000) which explores the development ideals of the institution's culture and traditions in order to invigorate the impoverished peoples in the Kingdom into a democratic, disciplined and hardworking community, that shall usher in a better and civilised living. The structural organs to implement this development strategy are the Buganda Cultural and Development Foundation (BUCADEF) and an Investment and Commercial Body, for revenue generation, the Buganda Investments and Commercial Undertakings Limited (BICUL), a private limited liability company with shareholders, holding shares in trust for the people of Buganda.

Africa should be given a chance to use the indigenous institutions, like Asia and the Far East have been encouraged to do so, so that Democracy and Development can take root for the good future of the Continent.

Joseph M Ssemwogerere

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1. The Buganda Region which comprises the Buganda Kingdom with the present population of about five million Baganda, is located in Central Uganda, hosting the National Capital, Kampala. Historical Buganda is known to have started in the 12th century, Kintu being the first Kabaka of Buganda and the present reign of H M Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II being the 36th in the line of succession of the Buganda monarchy.

2. Buganda and its monarchy played a big and important role in the establishment and development of Uganda. Since the last quarter of the 19th century, the Buganda Kingdom became famous and well renown for its civilisation, wealth, high living standards, education, good morals, and friendly association with the other communities. The Kingdom had its well established traditional administrative structure with the Kabaka at its apex and the administrative and clan chiefs down the structure. With the reliance on the blend of both the indigenous traditional/cultural systems/traits and the modern management practices, steady development was easily fostered across the Kingdom. By the middle of the twentieth century, the Kingdom was boasting of a very well developed and maintained social and economic infrastructure that helped it set the development pace for the rest of the country and the region.

3. The system of the Buganda Kingdom and its Monarchy got a shock in 1966 when the then Uganda Government used the armed forces to storm into the palace of the Late Kabaka Edward Muteesa II. The Kabaka fled into exile for his life where he passed away in 1969. In 1967, the Uganda Government made a new constitution that abolished kingdoms in Uganda. What followed was, unfortunately, doom and a gloomy future for Buganda and the rest of Uganda. The spirit and process of national unity was derailed. Government became anti-people and had to rely on the armed forces to execute its governance role. This culminated in the armed forces taking over Government in a military coup in 1971. Under the 8 years of military dictatorship, Uganda experienced total economic, social and moral regression. Hundreds of thousands lost their lives under the murderous military junta and many more run into exile until the military dictators were overthrown in 1979.

4. Unfortunately, the situation did not greatly improve thereafter until 1986 because the civilian government that was in power was also anti-people and largely relied on military power.

Ever since the storming of the Kabaka's palace in 1966 and the abolition of kingdoms soon after, the national economy and the rule of law collapsed. Under brutal state machinery, many lost their lives and property; many run into self-exile; the living, education and health standards nose-dived; and people lost their moral fibre and human values.

5. Since 1986 when the pro-people NATIONAL RESISTANCE MOVEMENT (NRM) Government took charge of Uganda's management, positive trends towards recovery from the negative past started developing. Government recognised that the achievement of sustainable recovery and growth required the restoration of the cultural and traditional systems to those communities that held them dear.

Accordingly, in July 1993, the 1967 Uganda Constitution was amended and legally restored the Kingdoms in Uganda. This paved way for the coronation of H M Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II as the 36th Kabaka of Buganda on the 31st July, 1993.

6. In spite of NRM Government's effort to correct the past mistakes, the large majority of the people are living in abject poverty and living in deplorable conditions. Disease and general poor health seem to have taken root; hygienic standards are well below desirable; the number of the destitute and street children are rising each day; there seems to be no opportune plans for the expanding numbers of the jobless illiterates and semi-illiterates flocking the urban centres resulting in the threatening of general security and the rule of law; general illiteracy is increasing; the nutrition standards and food security situation seriously need boosting; the environment is under threat of destruction; the cultural and moral values are largely eroded; etc. It is evident that, even where both Government and externally assisted development effort became available, its impact on the improvement of the people's living conditions was hardly felt. Despite their high cost, the benefits from the developmental resources were not obtained and the people have sort of lost hope as they become poorer day by day, not seeing any opportunities in life!!!

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7. The Monarchy is deeply touched by the very low standard of living of the people in the Buganda Kingdom/Region and all the Ugandans at large. It is determined to work tirelessly with the Lukiiko and the Government of Uganda to create opportunities and ensure that the population in the Buganda Kingdom rapidly recovers to prosperity and attain acceptable standards of living, technical skills, civilisation, cultural and moral values even excelling their pre-1966 situation in the shortest possible time. To correct the existing ills and reverse the trend, the indigenous traditional traits ought be revived and fused in the system of local governance and new appropriate initiatives must be developed. This move will take the form of a "CULTURAL AND DEVELOPMENT REVOLUTION (CDR)" of the Buganda Kingdom. Through this Revolution, within a reasonable time of 4 to 5 years, transformation of the Buganda and all people in the Buganda Region into a reasonably developed wealthy society, that upholds cultural and human values is achievable.

8. Through the CDR Programmes, effort to achieve the following objectives will be made:

(a) To promote and lift the living standards of the Baganda and all others living in the Buganda Kingdom through radical programmes centred on boosting of rural domestic incomes, and improving health care and education;

(b) To protect the Buganda heritage, to educate the Baganda in matters of their culture and values and to develop the Luganda language;

(c) To protect the environment and strike a balance between the Kingdom's economic development objectives and the rational management of the environment;

(d) To promote the awareness of the people in the Region in matters of the National Constitution, rule of law and democracy and human rights; and

(e) To foster a strong unity of the Baganda within Uganda as one nation.

The above objectives have been defined after very careful analysis and understanding of the problems of the Buganda community, and their basic needs and aspirations, in the overall context of the present day Uganda. Because of the enormous task involved in the realization of the said objectives, it is the determination of the Monarchy that it offers its services to the full in the spear-heading of this Cultural and Development Revolution in Buganda. In this context, the Kabaka's role will be that of over-view manager as well as being the chief mobiliser of the populace especially the rural peasants.

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9. To spearhead the Revolution, the Buganda Kingdom Government has been established to operate under the Lukiiko, as its executive arm. This Government shall spearhead the development revolution and the promotion of institutional democracy in the Buganda Kingdom through the re-establishment of an effective and efficient system of governance that blends both the indigenous traditional /cultural traits and the modern management practices. To ensure the realization of the Kingdom's sated objectives, two corporate bodies have been established to effectively and efficiently manage and coordinate all the programme operations. The Buganda Cultural and Development Foundation (BUCADEF) has been formed as the Kingdom's central Service Non-Governmental Organisation, while the Buganda Investments and Commercial Undertakings Limited (BICUL) has been established as a Private Limited Liability Company. Under BUCADEF the development process will be built on traditional values such that development guidance and assistance will be channelled through the traditional lines of least resistance to reach the Baganda Communities, through their strong matrices of the traditional and social values of the enhanced indigenous management practices and the matrix of local and cultural group dynamics, as the vehicles for rural development and emancipation within the context of the overall national development goals. This will be the key to stimulation of efficiency and productivity.

The BICUL has the objective of generating revenue that will sustain the Kingdom's development programmes through participation in large scale investment and commercial ventures nationally and internationally. Annexure 1 hereof shows the provisional Organizational Structure of the Kingdom.

10. The Executive, BUCADEF and BICUL will work very closely with the Uganda Government, the Local Administrations within the Kingdom, the various Government Organs, and the local and foreign Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO's) in its effort of spear-heading the Kingdom's development efforts. Working with the Lukiiko, the Executive and BUCADEF will guide, co-ordinate and facilitate the formulation, execution and management of sustainable, realistic and viable projects and programmes for the fulfilment of the CDR objectives based on the assessed localised and general needs across the Kingdom in the following areas:

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11. In the context of the national macro-economic setting, the Buganda Regional economic development policies will be developed and targets establised. On-going and pipeline projects in the Region, both Governmental and non-governmental, will be coordinated and given all necessary support ??ush as a matter of top priority. New viable projects will be identified and developed, suitable for execution at the domestic, sub-county, county, district and regional levels as appropriate. Sustainable and reliable mechanisms of project financing and professional project management and monitoring will be established as suitable to ensure optimum realisation of the objectives of the various CDR projects and programmes. (??=cut by photocopy)

Development of Services

12. To foster and strengthen the economic fabric of the Region, taking account of the provisions of enterprise development, business advisory services will be established to improve the running of firms, especially in the fields of management, accountancy, information technology, and finance.


Renewal of Human Values

13. To reverse the moral degradation that has taken place over the past 20 years, programmes to sensitize the populace of the ideal human values will be developed and run in all types of media both in public places and in homes. Emphasis will be placed on: rendering respect to one's neighbour and his/her property, inculcation of the spirit of love within the human race, respect and safeguard of public property, fight corruption in the society, love of one's motherland, culture and heritage, family values, fight against use of narcotic drugs etc.....

Religious Organisations and organised social groups will be invited for co-operation in this field.

Help to the Destitute

14. Towns are registering increasing number of street children, idle adults, beggars, etc... on a daily basis. The situation, if left unattended to, may sooner than later generate into a severe security crisis. This Department will develop programmes and establish institutions that will transform these destitute into useful and peace loving citizens.

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15. As a measure of developing the human resource to facilitate and hasten the realisation of the Region's objectives relevant educational and training programmes will be developed and implemented aimed at:

(a) Assisting and encouraging in setting up and expanding training and educational establishments, particularly those directly related to comprehensive education and entrepreneurship with the emphasis on appropriate technical training.

(b) Promoting education in the fields of the history and culture of the Baganda, values and governance through cultural and administrative institutions.

(c) Launching and promoting educational and training programmes notably in adult literacy, industrial craftsmanship, enhancement of domestic earnings, promotion of living standards and primary health.


16. Sport is a social catalyst that plays a key role in fostering harmony and unity in a society. Sporting clubs will be established at all levels, both administrative and cultural. To enable this, suitable sporting facilities will be established especially at community centres. Competitions will be the order of the day.


17. To enable proper and successful implementation of the various programmes, efficient flow of information to an from all levels must be established. The "Akiika Embuga" newspaper will be the official medium of communication while other measures at general disposal will also be utilized. The establishment of a Regional radio and television station will be investigated.


18. Projects and programmes in the following health fields will be developed and implemented:

(a) The improvement and extension of basic health services and promotion of home hygiene in the Region;

(b) The promotion of schemes to integrate traditional medicine in modern health care;

(c) The monitoring of training campaigns aimed at stamping out endemic disease, improving environmental hygiene, combatting the use of narcotic drugs, the spread of transmitted diseases and other health scourges.

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19. Land is regarded as the most treasured natural asset available to the region. It is rich and fertile, and the climate very favourable. Sustainable programmes to economically exploit this resource maximally, without damaging the environment in any way will be developed. This land asset should be taken by all as the true measure to be passed over to future generations in succession.

Agricultural and Rural Development

20. The thrust in this field will be that of the development and implementation of programmes that will boost the rural domestic earnings and ensure food security in every homestead within the Buganda Region. The projects cover the fields of: arable farming, livestock production, fisheries and forestry, shall be aimed, inter alia, will focus towards the following:

(a) Promotion of commercially viable cash crops for every homestead that will guarantee the rural population incomes that will significantly improve their standard of living, in order to be able to cover their essential needs in the areas of food, education, health and living conditions;

(b) Increase of self-sufficiency in food, in particular by strengthening the capacity of all homesteads to provide themselves with high quality food in surplus quantities and to ensure a satisfactory level of nutrition;

(c) Encouraging the active participation of the rural population, both men and women, in their own development by organizing small farmers into viable farming and marketing associations;

(d) Promoting and improving rural farming productivity, and methods by adoption of appropriate technologies; the rational exploitation of plant and animal resources; modernizing cultivation techniques; better integration of arable and livestock farming; introducing fish-farming and developing aquaculture; provision of and suitable storage facilities; effective control of disease and pests; organising and facilitating basic marketing arrangements through organization of producers; processing, packaging and marketing of products; and provision of suitable extension services to train the farmers.

(e) Help in the establishment of an interest-free credit schemes for the large proportion of the farmers that do not possess the critical initial capital to execute domestic schemes that will boost their earnings.

(f) Provision of potable water within reasonable reach of the people.

Protection of the Environment

21. The existence of some of the counties in the Buganda Region is under threat as a result of a rapid deterioration of the environment especially through the destruction of vegetation cover and the draining of wetland. This has started causing devastating effects in respect of unreliability of rainfall patterns, unreliable water sources, poor crop yields, scarce fuel wood, etc., threatening food security and living standards in particular.

The implementation of the programmes drawn under the National Environment Action Policy will be supported and strengthened to ensure a sustainable balance between the Region's economic development objectives and the rational management of the environment.

Energy Development

22. The energy situation in the Region has started to cause serious concern owing to the crisis caused by dependence on and the increasing scarcity of fuel-wood. To avert the crisis, suitable programmes will be drawn and implemented to resolve as swiftly as possible the problems caused by over-consumption of fuel-wood. While suitable programmes for introducing alternative energy sources will be developed (such as solar, water, animals and wind), in parallel, projects for making domestic fuel-wood energy use more efficient in both rural and urban areas, for developing plantations of suitable fuel-wood species, and for enhancing rural electrification will be enhanced.

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23. A strong financial base of the monarchy, the entire Buganda Region, the individual Districts in the Region, the counties, sub-counties and organised communities will play the most fundamental role of supporting and facilitating the successful implementation of the various economic, social and cultural programmes.

Lucrative commercial schemes will be identified and implemented at all levels for small organised communities, sub-counties, counties, districts and at the Regional level. Specific commercial schemes will be established for the Monarchy to make it self sustaining and finance the Royal Charity Fund. Regional funds will be centrally managed by the Royal Treasury "Gwanika Lya Buganda".

Industrial Development

24. A programme to ensure sustainable industrial development objectives and strategies based on the agricultural base of the Region with a view to maximizing local value added and creating, where possible, an effective capacity to export manufactured agro-based products, while ensuring the protection of the environment will be generated. The industrial development programme shall aim at:

(a) Fostering the creation of and the participation in enterprises by individuals and communities, especially those of a small and medium-size nature that produce and/or use local inputs especially in the areas of manufacturing and processing of primary agricultural products and processing of raw materials;

(b) Giving guidance and support for the establishment of new industries to supply the local market in a cost-effective manner and ensure the growth of the non-traditional export sector in order to increase rural real incomes and, provide employment opportunities.

(c) Assisting the establishment and expansion of all types of viable industries which have been identified by individuals or Communities as important in terms of the rural industrialization objectives and priorities;

(d) Offering all support and coordination possible in the development of industrial infrastructure and rural electrification;

(e) Providing adequate training in the appropriate scientific and technical craftsmanship areas.

Enterprise Development

25. Enterprises constitute one of the main instruments for achieving the objectives of promoting the economic capability of the people and increasing their employment, incomes and the level of skills. Accordingly, specific training programmes will be drawn for:

(a) The creation of entrepreneurship awareness among the people, and

(b) The development of the management capacity of individual entrepreneurs, particularly in the smallscale and informal sectors.


26. As a direct measure of generating revenue at all levels, right from the smallest organized group to the Region, suitable lucrative commercial ventures will be identified and introduced.

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27. To catalyse rural development, communities will be organized into associations and clubs through which guidance, advice and support will be directed in respect of all the envisaged rural economic and social development programmes. Suitable codes of conduct will be evolved by and for the members to enable creation of a disciplined society.

28. Women and youths are the most under-privileged sections of society, yet they represent the biggest proportion of the population and they are the producers of wealth. Women do not own land so are the youths except for inheritance when it occurs in case of male youths. Therefore, in the planning and execution of its programmes, special emphasis will be laid on the full participation of women and youth with the view of enhancing their status, improving their living conditions, and expanding their economic and social gains. Cultural obstacles to the development of women will be removed and programmes that will render special developmental assistance to the women and youths will be developed.

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29. In this field specific Programmes that create awareness and emphasis on the importance of cultural identity and natural heritage will be drawn and implemented with the essence of:

(a) Promotion of the cultural identity of the Baganda, with a view to fostering their self-advancement, stimulating their creativity and encouraging cultural dialogue and advancement.

(b) Encouraging cooperation through operations fostering the recognition of the cultural identities of the Uganda peoples, and fostering the reciprocal cultural enrichment of all Ugandans.

(c) Integration and enhancement of the local cultural heritage, notably value systems, way of life, modes of thought and know-how, materials and styles. The people will be helped to organize themselves, particularly within clans and cooperative/community societies and encouraged to participate in initiatives through education, sports, training and cultural motivation and promotion.

(d) Safeguarding and promoting the Buganda cultural heritage, notably through the establishment of cultural data banks and libraries for the collection of oral traditions and the enhancement of such traditions;

(e) Conserving historical and cultural monuments and promote traditional architecture and developing them for tourism.

(f) Fostering the distribution of the Buganda cultural goods outside Buganda.

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30. To restore the treasured pre 1966 maintenance and development culture of the Buganda Kingdom, the community self-help "Bulungi bwa nsi" spirit will be vigorously revived. This will enable the maintenance and upkeep of the community infrastructure like roads, wells and springs, administration buildings, schools, dispensaries and health centres, community centres, etc and the construction of new ones.


31. Special programmes will be run that will be aimed at making the population politically aware. In these programmes, the teaching of the constitution, the awareness of one's rights and obligations to the community and the country will be emphasized.


32. To realise the objectives and policies as highlighted in Section III above, sectoral and multi-sectoral projects have been identified and will continue to be identified. BUCADEF will ensure their successful implementation by means of:

* Direct sole or joint venture execution.
* Provision of management services.
* Running of educational and sensitisation programmes.

33. The BUCADEF will play the overall over-view management of all the Kingdom programmes based on rendering of services to the people.

The BICUL will participate in investments and commercial undertakings focused on generating revenue to finance the Kingdom's programmes, either solely or in joint ventureship/partnership with other firms.

34. Part B hereafter shows the schedule and details of the projects that have been identified under the above stated objectives, policies and strategies.

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A. Service Projects under the Buganda Cultural and Development Foundation (BUCADEF)

The following are the identified priority projects that shall be executed under the BUCADEF umbrella:

1. The Strengthening of the Buganda Kingdom Secretariat through Technical Assistance.
2. The promotion of Environment Protection through a programme of a On-Job-Training to Produce Energy Saving Stoves and the Promotion of H.M. the Kabaka's Tree Planting Programme in Buganda.
3. Pilot Integrated Project for Radical Increase in Rural Incomes and Improvement of Living Standards.
4. The strengthening of the Royal Volunteers Services through twinning arrangements.
5. Development and revamping of the Bulange.
6. Smallholder farming of non-traditional lucrative cash crops and food crops.
7. Establishment of farming demonstration centres.
8. Small holder rural diary development scheme.
9. Organic farming.
10. Grain food storage.
11. Apiary farming.
12. Domestic fish farming.
13. Pests disease control.
14. Cattle breeding services.
15. Training of primary agricultural extension staff.
16. Small scale irrigation and swamp reclamation.
17. Horticulture development.
18. Water conservation.
19. Integrated teachers education.
20. Rehabilitation of schools.
21. Effective school curriculum development.
22. Homestead, village, township planning.
23. Rehabilitation of health centres.
24. Health centres development.
25. Social centres development.
26. Aids control.

Training of health workers.
Help to the disabled.
Cataract project (Eye camp).
Sexual education.
Small scale industry development.
Enterprise development.
Rural investment skills.
Appropriate farming technology.
Rural power distribution.
Biogas energy development.
Low cost housing schemes for the rural poor.
Rural project development, monitoring and evaluation skills.
Micro projects - small enterprises/rural and urban.
Integrated community development.
Preservation of forests and wetland.
Buganda information centre.
Environment conservation sensitization.
Tree seed provision.
Street children rehabilitation.
Population education.
Improvement of slum settlement.
Adult literacy.
Women and youth entrepreneurship development.
Small scale seed capital credit fund.
Village skills centres for youth.
Community management training.
Effective management of feeder roads and community facilities.
Development of fishing landings.
Rural water and sanitation.

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The following are the identified investment and commercial priority projects that are to be executed under BICUL.

The establishment and operation of the Buganda FM Radio Broadcasting station.
Cut flowers and vegetables for export.
The development of Kasubi Tombs into a Cultural Monument.
Manufacture and distribution of agricultural tools.
Production and marketing of hybrid seeds.
Beef ranching.
Leather processing.
Development and operation of quarries.
Establishment of commercial plant-hire units.
Jeza Farm Rehabilitation.

CBS Studios

Famous DJs 'Gloria' and 'Ssematimba'
Inside the studios of Central Broadcasting Service (CBS)
Buganda's FM Radio Station, which started operation in June 1996.

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Organisation Structure of


(Prime Minister)





BICUL - The Buganda Investments and Commercial Undertakings Ltd.

BUCADEF - The Buganda Cultural and Development Foundation.

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